This research is an experimental research of three learning models namely Thinking Aloud Pairs Problem Solving (TAPPS), Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS), and Discovery Learning (DL) in terms of Adversity Quotient on mathematics learning achievement.

**Abstract**

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different learning models, namely Thinking Aloud Pairs Problem Solving (TAPPS), Two Stay Two Stray (TSTS), and Discovery Learning (DL), on mathematics learning achievement when considered in relation to Adversity Quotient (AQ). The research employed a quasi-experimental design with a factorial design consisting of 33 cells. The participants included 280 students from three Vocational High Schools in Gunungkidul Regency, Indonesia, categorized as high, medium, and low schools. The research utilized tests and questionnaires as data collection instruments. Data analysis involved a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with unbalanced cells, followed by post hoc tests using the Scheffe method.

The findings of the study are summarized as follows. Firstly, the TSTS learning model resulted in higher mathematics learning achievement compared to both the TAPPS and DL models. Furthermore, the TAPPS model was found to yield better mathematics learning achievement than the DL model. Secondly, students classified as AQ climbers demonstrated superior mathematics learning achievement compared to those classified as AQ campers or quitters. Additionally, students classified as AQ campers exhibited better mathematics achievement than students classified as quitters.

Thirdly, when considering the interaction between AQ types and learning models, students classified as AQ climbers achieved better mathematics learning outcomes than those classified as AQ quitters when exposed to the TAPPS learning model. Similarly, students classified as AQ climbers achieved better mathematics learning outcomes than those classified as AQ quitters when exposed to the DL learning model. Moreover, students classified as AQ campers achieved better mathematics learning outcomes than those classified as AQ quitters when exposed to the DL learning model.

Lastly, for students classified as AQ climbers and AQ quitters, the TSTS learning model proved to be more effective in promoting mathematics learning achievement compared to the DL learning model.

## Introduction experimental research

Mathematics plays a crucial role in technological advancements and serves as a foundation for various scientific disciplines, contributing to the development of human cognitive abilities. Abstract mathematical concepts are interconnected, forming more complex ideas [1]. Consequently, students are exposed to abstract notions when acquiring new mathematical knowledge. Mathematics is often associated with numbers, symbols, and formulas, which can significantly influence a student’s learning achievement.

One of the primary objectives of mathematics education is to ensure that students achieve good learning outcomes. The intellectual capacity of students plays a crucial role in determining their success in achieving learning goals. Learning achievement represents the outcomes attained by students throughout the learning process, typically quantified through numerical figures or grades [2]. Academic achievement, more specifically, refers to the performance in a specific academic setting, assessed by examination scores, grades assigned by teachers, and percentile rankings in academic subjects [3]. However, a prevalent issue faced by educational systems, particularly in developing countries, is the problem of low academic achievement [4]. In the school setting, students are expected to attain satisfactory learning outcomes through both school-based and independent learning efforts. Nonetheless, students often encounter obstacles, whether originating from internal factors or the external environment, that impede their academic progress.

### Improving Education Quality

Efforts to improve the quality of education have been done by improving the implementation of learning, especially in Indonesia. However, the effort has not been enough to show satisfactory results. This can be seen from the mathematics learning achievement shown by the students still low. The fact was supported by the students’ mathematics achievement which is still low.